Posts Tagged ‘retrofit

10
Apr
08

AGS Case Study: the Greenwich Street Project with CAD

Greenwich Street Project

Start with a six-story brick warehouse on the edge of New York’s Soho District. Wind up with an 11-story “smart loft” building, topped with a four-story glass and steel penthouse. That’s the tale of the 497GW Renovation (or Greenwich Street) Project, one of many case studies presented in Architectural Graphic Standards, 11th Edition .

Beginning with architect Winka Dubbeldam, everyone connected with this project, located at Manhattan’s lower west end, is justifiably proud. There are a ton of great photos of the Greenwich Street Project on the website of the client, TakeOne LLC, exploring all its aspects. Archi-Techtonics offers a lovely animation by Alex Pincus.

The main, and unarguably most spectacular, feature is a glass curtain wall reminiscent of a waterfall, which seems to float right off the structure. From inside, the blue-tinted glass cascade offers spectacular views of the Hudson River.

Digital analysis of the façade’s structure led to the decision to actually bend the glass panels to minimize forces and to create completely transparent seams. The result was that the glass was folded in Barcelona, Spain, the aluminum mullions custom-extruded in Hong Kong to match the façade’s angles, and all was assembled in Brooklyn. Installation was then a matter of suspending the glass panels off the steel structure on-site.

For the way it folds around and partially engulfs the old brick façade, the resulting exterior has been called a “parabuilding”. The rippling glass flood certainly seizes the eye and captures the attention, guaranteeing that the structure will not stop looking startlingly new for years to come.

The building’s interior was completely gutted, and then filled with 23 residential “smart lofts.” An army of electronic devices takes care of the residents when they are home, and automatically tends to everything when they’re not. Each loft is open-plan and has a full bathroom. The building also contains a fitness center and other amenities, while the ground floor and basement have been refitted to welcome an art gallery and other retail establishments. Every part was designed with attention not only to energy efficiency, but to good acoustics as well.

All the custom-designed innovations were made possible by the newest building information modeling technology.

The (electronic) communication was simply through digitally transmitted three-dimensional computer drawings between Barcelona, Hong Kong, and Brooklyn. The two-dimensional drawings were no longer made by the architect, but rather by the manufacturers, thus minimizing mistakes, and facilitating a fast manufacturing process. The installation was no longer based on verify in field (VIF), but rather on verify in computer (VIC). Site installation moved away from a site-oriented construction method to a construction method based on the digital data of abstract computer drawings.

It looks as if the human/machine partnership is here to stay. In fact, Wiley also offers a separate volume that covers the topic exhaustively: BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners, Managers, Designers, Engineers and Contractors.

The next question is, do these buildings turn out to be as livable as the software says they will?

SOURCE: Architectural Graphic Standards, 11th Edition
Photo courtesy of Phil Ritz, used according to its Creative Commons License

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07
Apr
08

AGS Case Study: Restoring 215 Fremont Street, San Francisco, California

215 Fremont San Francisco

The venerable L-shaped industrial building had been around since 1927, and had suffered badly in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, and then stood empty for a decade. Its rebirth is described in “Renovated Office Building at 215 Fremont Street, San Francisco California,” one of the case studies detailed in Architectural Graphic Standards, 11th Edition, from the American Institute of Architects, published by WILEY. The piece was written by four of the participants: James Kellogg, AIA, HOK; Lynn Filar, HOK; and Navinchandra R. Amin, SE and Vivian L. K. Wan, PE, both of Middlebrook + Louie.

The team that took on the revival of 215 Fremont faced real challenges. A large part of the project consisted of figuring out just what they were dealing with, hindered by the fact that many of the original drawings were either missing or indecipherable. When the nitty-gritty evaluation phase started, some unpleasant facts turned up. For example:

Since the original construction, the building had experienced differential settlements of up to 5 inches. Core samples and dynamic load tests of the existing floor slabs provided data necessary to evaluate the viability of components of the existing structure…

A large part of the evaluation process consisted of cranking up ETABS and SAP 2000, respected CAD programs that together gave a picture of how nicely the building would work and play with gravity and seismic loading. The prognosis wasn’t good. For starters, an earthquake would turn the ground beneath 215 Fremont into soup. How would they get this thing to stay up? Equally important was the need to satisfy ever-evolving building codes. We’ll let them tell it:

A new structural system needed to be developed for the project that would be sufficiently stiff to alleviate the induced internal forces in the existing floor slabs and punched exterior walls. Additionally, the structural system needed to use the full length and width of the structure to minimize the seismic overturning forces applied to the foundation…

As often happens, necessity gave birth to invention, and an elegant, innovative solution was arrived at.

This retrofit of an early twentieth century building led to the creation of a unique connection between steel braces and concrete columns, as a combination structural system comprised of steel-brace, frame-and-concrete shear walls was developed to meet all critical requirements.

The article explains exactly, and in great detail, how the team did it. And that’s not all. Every bit of 215 Fremont was remade into a paragon of sustainability and a fully compliant respecter of seismic requirements. What had once been basement storage space was now a much-needed parking facility. From bottom to top, from the new pedestrian-friendly retail arcade to the attractive rooftop terraces, the whole edifice was transformed. Impressed, the Structural Engineers Association of California gave the building its coveted Excellence in Structural Engineering Award.

215 Fremont, later also known as the Charles Schwab building and the Emporis building, was a showpiece as its neighborhood morphed into the happening “multimedia gulch.” When the project was finished in early 2001, a major corporation immediately occupied the entire building. The renovators had successfully made a statement: the cultural tone of the whole area had been elevated.

But any project of this kind also raises disturbing questions about the ultimate futility, in the event of catastrophic emergency, of even the strictest building codes.

SOURCE: “Renovated Office Building at 215 Fremont Street, San Francisco California” 2007
Photo courtesy of WILEY by Michael O’Callahan